AP World History Chapter 1 overall review

Topics: Byzantine Empire, Germanic peoples, Turkic peoples Pages: 3 (362 words) Published: December 10, 2013
1. Expansion & Integration
- All classical civilizations expanded
- New challenges: How did they cooperate?
○ Seminal thinkers brought central values; Confucius, Laozi, Buddha, Socrates
- Unity attempts
○ China= Centralize the government
§ Royal citizens -> resettlement around the government
§ Language promotion
§ Confucian hierarchy
§ India= Hierarchy society
§ Caste system
§ Hinduism
○ Mediterranean
§ Local autonomy (freedom in life for their people; High tolerance)
§ Laws
§ Citizenships
§ Economic interdependence
2. Non classical Developments
- Africa
§ Kush -> Axum -> Ethiopia & Later foundation of Ghana
□ Writing, religious conversion (Judaism & Christianity), iron, divine rule of Kings
- Japan
§ Writing, agriculture, Shintoism, Iron, Divine rule
- Europe
§ Little independent development, Regional ruling, polytheistic, interaction with Rome
- Central America
§ Olmecs - Monuments; Corn, potato, Few domesticated animals, Calendar, Writings
§ Mayans - Foundation on the Olmecs
§ Incas - Similar to Maya and Inca, built cities & religious monuments
§ Lacked benefits of interaction (wheel and irons were scarce)
- Polynesians (In Pacific)
§ Fiji, Samoa, Hawaii
□ Outrigger canoes , caste system (particular in Hawaii), Divine rule (king based)
- Central Asia
§ Nomadic Herders, Trade route intermediaries (middleman ,Whole sale people), technologies (stirrups)
§ Invasion of civilization -> population pressure & spoils
3. Decline (and Fall or Revival) of Civilizations
- China
§ 3 century of chaos (Similar to Era of Warring States)
□ Fall because…
□ Internal decay - Corruption, decline in central authority, high taxes, Buddhism's different thoughts with original thoughts; Confucianism
□ Daoist rebellion "Yellow Turbines" -> … Failed…
□ Epidemics (up to half died)
□ Nomadic invasions (from the Huns)
□...
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