World History Review sheet
Foundations of Civilization (Prehistory–3000 B.C.): Summary A key to understanding history is studying the five themes of geography: location, place, ____ ____ ____, movement, and region. With the help of modern science, archaeologists analyze early human remains and reconstruct how early people lived. Historians learn about the past by examining and evaluating written evidence and other records. The earliest period of human history is called the____ ____ ____. Paleolithic people developed skills and tools in order to survive. Their art and religion reflected the world in which they lived. The _____ agricultural revolution brought farming and permanent communities. Eight features of early civilization were _____, centralized governments, complex religions, job specialization, social classes, arts and architecture, public works, and writing. Many of the first civilizations emerged along _____ _____. Interaction among the various civilizations often brought about cultural change.
Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.): Summary In Egypt, the benefits of the _____ River supported the development of early civilization. Interaction between the Egyptians and such peoples as the Hyksos, _____, and Nubians had lasting significance. Religious beliefs about gods, values, and life after death profoundly affected ancient Egyptian life. _____ used a system of hieroglyphics to make written records. Other Egyptians made advances in science, mathematics, art, and literature. The Tigris and _____ rivers supported the development of _____ civilization. The need to cooperate for irrigation and _____ control led the Sumerians to form _____ _____with strong governments. The Sumerians' relationship with the land was reflected in their religious beliefs and their worldview. The Sumerians developed_____, basic algebra, and geometry, and made advances in medicine, geography, and astronomy. Hebrews and Phoenicians also made significant contributions to early civilization. Strong rulers united the lands of the _____ Crescent into empires that had well-organized systems of law and government. Middle Eastern civilizations of the period also developed _____ working, coins, and an alphabet. Through warfare and trade, these and other cultural achievements spread to new lands.
Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550): Summary
The vast Indian subcontinent is a land of mountains, fertile plains, and arid regions. Rivers and monsoons have had much influence on Indian life. In the _____ _____valley, archaeologists have uncovered the remains of India's first civilization. This civilization, which is thought to have flourished for about 1,000 years, eventually fell to the_____, who invaded India and destroyed many Indus Valley cities. Over the centuries, they abandoned their nomadic life, interacted with the people they conquered, and developed a new Indian civilization. The sacred______, an ancient collection of prayers, hymns, and other religious teachings, reveal much about the Aryans' religion and social structure. Geography isolated early Chinese civilization, yet the people developed a writing system, literature, silk making, and other arts. They honored nature and ancestor spirits. Politically, they believed in the _____ __ _____and the dynastic cycle.
Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.): Summary
Influenced by the civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia, _____ civilization developed in numerous city-states on the Greek mainland. Although _____separated Greek communities from one another, this land of islands and jagged coastlines had a common focus—the sea. Greek traders carried their ideas and culture around the_____. Another result of geographic divisions was the growth of separate city-states, two of which were _____and Athens. After the _____ Wars, democracy thrived in _____, as it became the most powerful and prosperous Greek city-state. However, rivalry among the Greek city-states led to...
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