Girdle is a type of pressure garment to shape and smooth women’s figure from waist to thighs by compressing the fatty muscle to achieve the aesthetic appearance.
The girdles are made of elastic material. It adds pressure to the body and creates a nice body shape. Girdles mainly constructed by the warp knit power net and several layers with elastic power net to form different degree of pressure. A firm-control girdle will normally have more areas in which the fabric had been doubled to form a panel design that will have more controlling power. So the girdle must fit the body. However, some of the stress inside the pressure garment/ girdle will be relieved if the garment is under wash or wet by human perspiration with several times. Such decay is critical in changing the function of the pressure garment. In this project, we are aimed to find out the decay and the steady point of a pressure garment after several washes. As a result, suggestion can be raised to the manufacturer or user to wash the fabric before producing the pressure garment.
According to the above problem, below objective are set:
To analyze the decay of pressure after washing and to find out the steady pressure or mechanical properties after several washes. b)
To analyze how different washing media: water, detergent and physiological saline affected the change in pressure. c)
To find out the bias angle of an elastic fabric with which has the steadiest young’s mouduls d)
To discuss if the decline of pressure is critical for the manufacturers to have pre-washing before making the pressure garment/girdle.
B. Literature Review
The literature review is divided into four parts: materials used and optimum pressure for girdle, pressure measuring method, Predicting pressure exerted by pressure garment and pressure Decay on creeping and washing
1. Materials used and Optimum pressure for girdles
Girdles, the tight fitting clothing, are made from firm elastic fabric containing Lycra. Several kinds of Lycra could be used for making girdles. Different degrees of elasticity and strength of the materials would provide varying degrees of fabric tension and thus induce different degrees of pressure on wearers .
Girdles should not create discomfort and any detrimental effects on wear’s physiology while shaping the women’s lower part of the body. Therefore, the functional requirements of girdles are very demanding, since too loose of the tightness means the girdle is not effective in shaping the body and too tight means it is not comfortable and may have detrimental physiological effects . Researcher Inamura et al. reported that the tensile and shear properties the girdle fabrics would affect the wearing comfort of girdles .
Pressure created by wearing girdles is an important parameter. It closely relates to wearer’s physiological effects, body shaping and wearing comfort. Pressure measurements on subjects wearing girdles of various design, materials, pattern and construction have been conducted by Makabe et al. It was found that subjects complained of discomfort when the pressure reached more than 30-40 mmHg .
For the product development and evaluation of girdles, it is essential to establish the optimum pressure distribution of girdles at different body positions. The optimum pressure distribution should be defined as it maximally beautifies the lower body part of a wearer without creating any discomfort and detrimental physiological effects .
Many researchers carried out study on finding the optimum pressure for the lower part of body, including Miyuki , Haruko , A.P. Chan and Noriko Ito.The results were as follow:
Optimum Pressure (mmHg)
References:  Ng, S.F., Hui, C.L.(2001),“Pressure Model of Elastic Fabric for Producing Pressure
Garments”, Textile Research Journal, Vol
 Chan, A.P. and Fan, J.(2002), “Effect of clothing pressure on the tightness sensation
of girdles”, International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, Vol
 Inamura, A., Nakanishi, M. and Niwa, M.(1995), “Relationship between Wearing
Comfort and Physical Properties of Girdles”, Journal of the Japan Reasearch
 Nakashi, M., Morooka, H., Morooka, H., Hiraga, S. and Deguchi, J.(1999), “Effect of
Clothing Pressure on Front and Back of lower Leg on Compressive Feeling”, Japan
 Makabe, H., Momota, H., Mitsuno, T. and Ueda, K.(1991), “A study of Clothing
Pressure Developed by the Girdle”, Journal of the Japan Research Association for
 Ito, N., Inoue, M., Nakanishi, M. and Niwa, M.(1995), “The Relation Among the
Biaxial Extension Properties of Girdle Clothes and Wearing Comfort and Clothing
 Maklewska, E. and Nawrocki, A.(2007), “New measuring device for estimate the
pressure under compression garments”, International Journal of Clothing, Vol
 Macintyre, L.(2006), “Designing pressure garment capable of exerting specific
pressure on limbs”, Burns 33, pp 579-586
 Cheng. J. C. Y.,Evans. J. H., Clarke. J.A. Choy. I.T.C. and Leung. P. C.(1983),
“Pressure Therapy in the treatment of Post-burn Hypertrophic Scar- A Critical Look
 Ng. S. F.(1994), “Medical Clothing: The Stress Relaxation and Shrinkage of
Pressure Garments”, Int
 Li, Y. and Dai, X.Q.(2006), “Biomechanical Engineering of Textiles and Clothing”,
1st ed.UK: Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing,Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press.
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