AP World History
21 Aug 2014
APWH Summer Assignment 2014
1. The key factor that provoked civilizations to develop was agriculture. Once discovered, agriculture allowed humans to settle in one place for a long period of time and become less migrant, therefore creating bigger cities. Some of the key characteristics that were critical for civilizations to develop were advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping and advanced technologies. Agriculture allowed for advanced cities and some advanced technologies, like bronze tools, enabled humans to progress. 2. Compared to noncivilized societies, some major drawbacks of civilizations include the implementation of social classes or caste systems. These distinctions drew the line between the upper and lower class and caused conflict. Since the beginning of civilization women became of less importance than in hunter gatherer societies and therefore were treated more poorly. Civilization has also caused a greater impact on the Earth than noncivilized societies. 3. Jewish monotheism was a significant factor in the development of our history. Judaism, one of the first monotheistic cultures, provided a basis for other religions such as Christianity and Islam. The Jews religion was not only just a collection of rituals and ceremonies, but a way of life and ethics. The Jewish culture provided diversity in early civilizations however; they still remain as the minority in religion in the Middle East. 4. The early river valley civilizations can be compared and contrasted in many ways. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt worshipped many gods and were considered polytheistic. These two civilizations also developed their own form of written language; hieroglyphics in Egypt and cuneiform in Mesopotamia. In contrast, one difference between the two civilizations was that Mesopotamia, although protected by many geographic barriers, was still susceptible to attacks from all angles whereas the Egyptians were more protected by the Saharan desert. 5. The development of writing in early river valley civilizations changed almost every aspect of human life. The development of cuneiform in Mesopotamia allowed citizens to use a written form of language which led to the creation of the Code of Hammurabi. These written forms of language, often represented by symbols, provided a basis for government and a way to document codes and laws.
6. In 6th century China a scholar and philosopher left his hometown in search of employment; his name was Confucius. Confucius developed a form of government called Confucianism that was recorded in the Analects. Confucianism was a code of ethics that stressed the importance of social class and order. Respect for parents and elders, also known as filial piety, was something Confucius and the Chinese thought was of utmost importance. 7. Wudi’s system of bureaucracy benefited the Chinese civilization by strengthening its government. Workers were given examinations in order to receive their jobs, this way only the qualified could do certain occupations. Loyal followers were rewarded with government jobs, and even taxes were levied in order to pay for the system of bureaucracy. Bureaucracy insured that only the most qualified could complete civil service jobs correctly. 8. Daoism and Confucianism were widely accepted throughout China, because although they were almost the complete opposite, their beliefs did not conflict with each other. Daoism was mostly a set of religious beliefs that were based off of harmony and peace. Like Daoism, Confucianism was also a set of ethics, but applied to government and not so much religion. 9. Classical China was a civilization based entirely off of social class and hierarchy. Women, like in all agricultural civilizations, played the submissive role to men. In China, not only was family life mainly patriarchal, but so was their government. Social status had much value to the...
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