Byzantine Notes

Topics: Byzantine Empire, Justinian I, Constantinople Pages: 5 (1333 words) Published: February 17, 2014
Byzantine
Period
-Western Roman Empire falls in 476AD.
-Roman Emperor moved the capital to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople.
-Constantinople was advantageous to Rome in that it could deal with barbarians, was a huge trading port, and it made protecting the eastern front easier. Justinian
-In 527 Justinian became emperor through his uncle.
-He sent his general Belisarius to reclaim the land lost to the west
-Belisarius took North Africa from the Vandals, and Rome from the Ostrogoths.
-Justinian then ruled all of former Rome, including Spain and Italy. Emperors and their Power
-Due to the Eastern Orthodoxy beliefs the emperor headed both church and state.
-Many emperors were assassinated and other abandoned it all together due to politics.
-They also had the power to dismiss and appoint Bishops.
Eastern Roman Empire
-As well as speaking Greek instead of Latin Eastern Rome belonged to the eastern branch of Christianity.
-Rome's legal system was also rectified by ten legal experts due to their antiquated ways. This resulted in a body of civil law known as Justinian's Code. This was broken down into 4 works; the Code contained 5,000 laws, the Digest summarized Rome's legal thinkers about law, the Institutes was a book that told law students how to use laws, and the Novellae presented legislation after the year 565AD.

-These laws have continued to serve modern day governments with laws in the Civil field. Creating the Imperial Capital
-Justinian rebuilt military fortifications of Constantinople and ringed the coast with a stone wall.
-On the inland the city was protected by 3 walls, the innermost being the most well defended.
-Justinian also commissioned several religious works including the Hagia Sophia.
-He also built many public works like bathhouses, aqueducts, law courts, schools, and hospitals. Constantinople
-Constantinople was a large trading hub for products all over the world. Including Asia, Europe and Africa.
-Entertainment was found at the Hippodrome a chariot racing stadium and facilitator.
-However two chariot teams sparked riots against the government and proclaimed a new emperor. This was called the Nika Rebellion.
-To save the empire Justinian's wife Theodora sent Belisarius to murder 30,000 rebels. Byzantium Preserves Learning
-Byzantium peoples focused on education, therefore children were sent to public schools or tutored privately.
-Their subjects focused mainly on great works done by Greek and Roman scholars before them.
-This preserved the teachings that we know today.
Justinian Plague
-The bubonic plague swept into Constantinople from India.
-At its peak 10,000 people were dying every day and destroyed a huge percentage of Constantinople's population. This exposed Constantinople and left weaknesses for its enemies. Constantinople Attacked

-Islam rises and as such multiple Arab attacks take place around 717 and 626.
-To deal with this Byzantines used bribes, diplomacy, and political marriages. However this was not enough so the empire was reorganized into military districts called themes.
-Byzantine power was slowly stripped away along with their territory. Until they were overcame by the Ottoman Turks in 1453AD. Rome and Constantinople Divide
-Eastern Orthodoxy was built around preceding Saints who gave rules and lead. Some of these rulers were St. Basil who wrote rules for monk life and St. John who was a bishop or patriarch of the church.

-However a controversy was created when Byzantine Emperor Leo III banned the use of icons.
-The emperor had great sway on his people and iconoclasts began to destroy icons and riot.
-While the Catholics supported icons and began to fight back even having one of their popes ordering the excommunication of the Byzantine emperor.
-More than 100 years later the Eastern Church brought icons however a divide had been created by the two churches this is call a schism....
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