chapter 9 world history AP notes

Topics: Byzantine Empire, Roman Empire, Eastern Europe Pages: 14 (4003 words) Published: October 20, 2013
Chapter 9
P192-211

Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

Introduction:
BIG IDEASDETAILS
One: Two major Christian civilizations took shape- the orthodox Christian Byzantine & Catholicism in Central and West Europe- yet the remained mostly different

Two: Expansion into areas never controlled beforeBoth new civilizations were impacted by Islam oThey had Different principles
Byzantine places a higher stress on politics, economy, and cultural life (from about 500-1459 CE) They had land from the Northern Middle East, the Eastern Mediterranean & sometimes land in the Balkans •Their government was basically a continuation of the eastern Roman empire oThey wanted to keep the Roman Legacy alive as well as contribute many of their own legacies- one of these being Constantinople, one of the greatest cities in the world at this time. •Started to spread into the Balkans and western Russia (lands that were never previously controlled) •Rise of Russia was assisted by the Byzantines (the most important “offspring”) oLed to Russia being influenced by the Byzantines

There were also some similarities between the to Christian civilizations oThey both spread to the north (because of missionary appeal of the religion) oBoth monotheistic
oTheir northern lands both had problems creating a political definition oThey both traded with the major centers of world commerce
oBoth used a lot of Greco-Roman styles
oWere somewhat hostile towards each other
oThey both had little mutual contact with each other until the very end of the period •Eastern Europe was more advanced with regards to political sophistication, cultural range, and economic vitality

Overall Summary (ablongman)- “In addition to the great civilizations of Asia and North Africa forming during the postclassical period, two related major civilizations formed in Europe. The Byzantine Empire, in western Asia and southeastern Europe, expanded into eastern Europe. The other was defined by the influence of Catholicism in western and central Europe. The Byzantine Empire, with territory in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the eastern Mediterranean, maintained very high levels of political, economic, and cultural life between 500 and 1450 C.E. The empire continued many Roman patterns and spread its Orthodox Christian civilization through most of eastern Europe, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. Catholic Christianity, without an imperial center, spread in western Europe. Two separate civilizations emerged from the differing Christian influences”

The Byzantine Empire
“The Byzantine Empire unfolded initially as part of the greater Roman Empire. Then, as this framework shattered with Roman decline, it took a life of its own, particularly from the reign of Emperor Justinian onward. It centered on a territory different from and smaller than the eastern Mediterranean as Rome had defined it. This was the result of new pressures, particularly the surge of Islam throughout North Africa and the bulk of the Middle East. Despite many attacks, the empire flourished until the 11th century.”

Origins of the Empire:
You can think of the beginning of the empire as the 4th century CE oThis was when the Romans set up their western capitol of Constantinople •This one city became a strong and thriving center of an empire with a falling imperial structure •Emperor Constantine started to build many elaborate buildings, some of which were Christian churches oBuild his city off of the small town of Byzantium

oEastern emperors would rule from this new city
Even before the fall of western Rome
Warded off intruders (including the Huns)
Had a solid tax base because of the peasant agriculture of the eastern Mediterranean •Emperor Justinian (in the 6th century) changed the official language to Greek (Latin had been the court language of the eastern empire; however, it became inferior & considered barbaric) oThis Greek...
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