Continental Carriers, Inc

Topics: Byzantine Empire, Crusades, Alexios I Komnenos Pages: 206 (75829 words) Published: July 26, 2013
The Crusades

Biographies

The Crusades

Biographies

Written by J. Sydney Jones Edited by Marcia Merryman Means and Neil Schlager

The Crusades: Biographies
Written by J. Sydney Jones Edited by Marcia Merryman Means and Neil Schlager Project Editor Julie L. Carnagie Editorial Ralph G. Zerbonia Permissions Lori Hines, Susan J. Rudolph, William A. Sampson ©2005 by U•X•L. U•X•L is an imprint of Thomson Gale, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. U•X•L® is a registered trademark used herein under license. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact: Thomson Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our Internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means— graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems—without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this product, submit your request via Web at http://www.gale-edit.com/permissions, or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to: Permissions Department Thomson Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Permissions Hotline: 248-699-8006 or 800-877-4253, ext. 8006 Fax: 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058 Cover photographs reproduced by permission: Portrait of Maimonides, photograph. Corbis; Innocent III, photograph. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Pope Urban II, photograph. Bettmann/ Corbis; Richard I, photograph. Courtesy of the Library of Congress. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Thomson Gale does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Thomson Gale accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement by the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. Imaging and Multimedia Lezlie Light, Mike Logusz, Kelly A. Quin Product Design Pamela Galbreath, Jennifer Wahi Composition Evi Seoud Manufacturing Rita Wimberley

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA

Jones, J. Sydney. The Crusades: Biographies / written by J. Sydney Jones ; edited by Marcia Merryman Means and Neil Schlager. p. cm. – (The Crusades reference library) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7876-9177-1 (alk. paper) 1. Crusades–Biography–Dictionaries, Juvenile. I. Title: Biographies. II. Means, Marcia Merryman. III. Schlager, Neil, 1966- IV. Title. V. Series. D156.J66 2004 909.07–dc22 2004018000

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents

Reader’s Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Timeline of Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Words to Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Alexius I Comnenus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Alexius IV Angelus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Alp Arslan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Averroës . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Al-Zahir Baybars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Benjamin of Tudela. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Bernard of Clairvaux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Anna Comnena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Eleanor of Aquitaine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Francis of Assisi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Frederick II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Godfrey of Bouillon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Hugh de Payens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Innocent III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Sultan al-Malik al-Kamil . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Louis IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 v

Maimonides . . . . . Melisende . . ....
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