Throughout history, the Mediterranean has offered a vast amount of political transformations leading to both cultural continuities and variances. One of the main political changes that occurred in this area was the fall of the Roman Empire and the rise of the Byzantine Empire, which took place from around 200 C.E to 1000 C.E. While these empires consisted of roughly the same culture, they had different political structures which led to some differences. Other alterations that came up were the rise of Islam and the invasion of Germanic tribes. This led to cultural diffusion in the Mediterranean and had many effects on the cultures of this area.
Many relate the fall of the Roman Empire to it being split in half in 330 C.E; however, the Roman Empire officially fell in 476 C.E. when Germanic tribes overthrew the Western half of the empire. The Eastern half went on to be known as the Byzantine Empire which already had its own capitol, Constantinople, and its own emperor. Christianity had already been legalized by the Roman Empire in 313 C.E, before the split. It had spread so rapidly afterwards that it soon became the official religion of the state. After the fall of the Roman Empire and the rise of the Byzantine Empire, this was one of the main continuities. Christianity was the official religion of the Byzantine Empire as it had been for the Roman Empire. Not only did the Byzantine Empire stay Christian, but also the Western half of the Roman Empire, at that point conquered by Germanic tribes, stayed Christian and the conquering tribes converted to Christianity, which was a change. Another continuity of Roman culture into Byzantine culture was that a Byzantine emperor, Justinian, actually created a code of laws from compiling laws that were used in the Roman Empire, such as the citizenship laws that were prevalent for most of span of the Roman Empire. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine (eastern Roman Empire) continued to speak Greek, and the Western...
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