Hazrat Umar Farroq
Caliphate of Hazrat Umar
Hazrat Umar: His life before becoming a caliph and his character
Hazrat Umar belonged to the Quraishi family of Banu Adi.
His father’s name was Khattab bin Nufail.
The ancestry of Hazrat Umar coincided with the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in eighth generation. The name of Hazrat Umar’s mother Hantamah bint Hisham bin Mughairah. He was born in the Year of the Elephant (about 40 years before migration). He was thus 12-13 years younger than the Holy Prophet (PBUH).
Hazrat Umar was born in an educated and well-off family. He too was personally eduated by his father.
In his youth, Hazrat Umar acquired the skills of geneology, fighting, wrestling and oratory. Before his acceptance of Islam, Hazrat Umar was appointed to the ambassadorial post by the Quraish.
He was well-established in trade.
Hazrat Umar was 27 years old when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was given the charge of Messengership.
In the sixth year of Prophethood, Hazrat Umar accepted Islam in Arqam’s house in Makkah, which at that time was the centre of Prophet’s preaching.
After his conversion to Islam, Muslims performed prayer for the first time in Ka’bah. He was thirty three years old when he embraced Islam.
He was given the title Farooq i.e. one who can distinguish between right and wrong by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) after he converted to Islam.
He migrated to Madina and took part in all major battles, i.e. Badr, Uhad, Ditch, Khyber and Hunain.
His daughter Hazrat Hafsah was Holy Prophet (PBUH)’s wife. He gave half his wealth at the time of the Tabuk Expedition.
Main attributes of his personality:
Simplicity, kindness, full commitment, dedication and devotion to his duty as Caliph, good judge of men, able to discern truth from falsehood, high moral standards, tough as administrator, possessed the qualities of foresight and far-sightedness, quick and sharp in decision-making and ensuring its implementation.
Election of Hazrat Umar as the second caliph:
24 August 634 AD.
Hazrat Abu Bakr nominated Hazrat Umar as the next Caliph.
Hazrat Umar Farroq
After Hazrat Abu Bakr’s death, most of the eminent Companions of Muhammad (PBUH) swore allegiance to Hazrat Umar.
Wars with Persia
Battle of Namarraq (October, 634 AD):
Because the Muslims had captured Hira under the caliphate of Abu Bakr, the infuriated Persian Emperor sent a large force under a famous general.
The two armies met 10 miles from Hira.
Persians were defeated and put to flight.
Battle of Jar/Battle of the Bridge (October, 634 AD):
Alarmed by the Muslim victory, the Persian Emperor dispatched a large army, commanded by Bahman.
The Muslim army was led by Hazrat Abu Ubaydah.
Before this mighty force, the Arabs fell back and re-crossed the Euphrates. The Persian commander challenged Hazrat Abu Ubaydah to cross the river again or allow him to come to the Arab side.
Acting rashly and against his advisors’ warnings, Hazrat Abu Ubaydah ordered the Muslim army to build a bridge of boats and cross the river.
Once on the opposite side, the Muslims found themselves in an alarming situation. They were hemmed in between the Persian war-elephants in their front and the swift river Euphrates on their backs.
The Arabs and their animals had never seen elephants before and were terrified by these fierce and gigantic beasts. These elephants routed the Muslim cavalry. Hazrat Abu Ubaida ordered the cavalry to dismount and fight on foot. Although the Muslims fought bravely and brought down many elephants, they were trampled in large numbers under the beasts’ feet.
Hazrat Abu Ubaida himself was martyred by one of the elephants. His brother succeeded him, but one by one, the Muslim commanders were martyred.
A Muslim had cut the boat-bridge so that the Muslim army would not lose heart and retreat easily....
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