history of europe

Topics: Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Pope Pages: 11 (1967 words) Published: February 19, 2014
Clovis
-First King of the Franks
-invaded and defeated the last Roman army in Gaul
-First Catholic to rule over Gaul
Gregory of Tours
-writes the history of the Franks
-bishop
King Ethelbert of Kent
-First anglo-saxon King to be converted to Christianity
-Married a Christian princess
-First to create law codes and wergild
Justinian
-(r.527-565)
-Byzantine Empire
-codified Roman law in 529
-professionalized provincial administration
-placed government official on fixed salaries
-reinstated regulations about sons' profession
Hagia Sophia
-built by Justinian in Constantinople
-built very quickly
Belisarius
-(505-565)
-General of Justinian
-led campaign that returned Italy, Sicily, northwestern Africa and southern Spain to the Byzantine Empire Heraclius
-(610-641)
-ruler of Eastern Roman Empire
-made Greek official language
-defeated Persia
-lost to Arabs
-regained Jerusalem
Five Pillars of Faith
-Confession of faith
-Prayer five times a day
-Almsgiving
-Fasting
-Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj)
Charlemagne
-King of the Franks from 768 to 814
-united much of France, Germany and northern Italy in the Frankish empire -crowned emperor of the Roman people in 800
Alcuin of York
-initiates educational reform
-735 to 804
Carolingian Minuscule
-script developed as a writing standard in Europe so the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to the other Louis the Pious
-(r.814-840)
-son of Charlemagne
-weak leader
-took the throne very young
Benedict of Aniane
-Louis the Pious's spiritual advisor
-became a hermit
-finds a monastery and uses St. Benedict
-Benedictine Rule becomes standard in the empire
-(747-821)
Benedictine Rule
-a collection of rules or guidelines for monks and monasteries - emphasizes obedience, poverty and chastity
-divides the day into periods of worship, work and study
primogeniture
-inheritance or succession by the eldest son
Lothar
-(817-840)
-eldest son of Louis the Pious
-was given Bavaria and marked as co-emperor
-eventually had control over Italy and implemented the Constituto Romana -repeatedly revolted with his brothers against his father, then took control for himself Louis the German
-second son of Louis the Pious
-9th century
-becomes Emperor after Lothar dies
-King of East Franks
-(843-878)
Charles the Bald
-third son of Louis the Pious
-got what today is modern France
Treaty of Verdun
-843
-divided Charlemagne's Empire
-three parts
-signaled the end of Carolingian Empire
-written in different languages so everyone could read it, but that meant that the empire was not united at all Vikings
-10th century
-germanic people from Scandinavia who often raided western Europe -raids turned into invasions
-Defense by Alfred the Great
-vikings turned their attention to other areas
Alfred the Great
-(871-899)
-first king of united England
-drove out the vikings
-gets Danes to accept Christianity and to respect Saxon rule in the South -united the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
Rollo, Duke of Normandy
-founds the dutchy of normandy
-(r. 911-932)
-gave the vikings Normandy
-he was baptized and then soon became normal royalty
Charles the Simple
-(879-929)
-Frankish king
-made a deal with the Viking King Rollo
-Gives Rollo Normandy
Magyars
-people from Western Asia settled on the plains of Hungary
Bulgars
-Prussian troops of Frederick the Great
-defeated Eastern Roman forces and took possession of Lower Danube Valley

Otto the Great
-(r.936-973)
-Duke of Saxony
-King of the Germans and arguably the first Holy Roman Emperor -pope gave him the title
-dealt with Magyars – stops them
Fief
-an estate granted to a vassal from a lord under the feudal system in medieval Europe in exchange for loyalty and service Vassal
-person who has a lord, works for and praises their lord, and, in return, the lord owes his vassal protection Feudalism
-medieval social structure: gives order and protection...
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