LIBERATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE:
THE FACTORS THAT LEAD TO ITS SUCCESS
IPDA/G3/1/01 Instruction for Service Paper and Presentation dated 3 Sep 12. PBB MAL Chapter 4 (Provisional 2010).
1. This service paper is a Battle Study of the Liberation of Constantinople. The Liberation of Constantinople is referring to the changing from Christianity to Islamic era between Eastern Roman and Ottoman Empire.
2. The aim of this service paper is to discuss the factors that lead to the successful Liberation of Constantinople.
3. The scope for this paper will cover the following topics:
6. Background, the brief history of Constantinople.
7. The Battles of Constantinople.
8. The Battle.
10. Disposition and Strategies.
11. The Final Battle - The Siege of Constantinople.
12. The Final Assault.
13. Aftermath of the Battle.
14. Internal and External Factors Lead to the Success.
19. Lesson Learnt.
20. This service paper is to discuss the factors that lead on liberation of Constantinople. This paper does not focus on any particular battle during the campaign, as they are similar in nature.
BACKGROUND the brief history of Constantinople
21. Constantinople was founded in 330 AD at ancient Byzantium as the new capital of Roman Empire by Constantine l. It was the largest and wealthiest European city which shared the glories of the Byzantine Empire. It was taken in 1204 by the army of the 4th Crusade, in 1261 by Michael VIII and in 1453 by the Ottoman Sultan Muhammad II. A first wall was erected by Constantine I and was surrounded by a double wall lying about 2 km on its west which was started by Theodosius II during the 5th century. The city was built on seven hills surrounded by the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara thus presented as impenetrable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces, domes and towers. The Church of Hagia Sophia, the sacred palace of the emperors the hippodrome and the Golden Gate were among the largest of the many churches, public edifices and monuments lining the arcaded avenues and squares.
22. Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and 1453 of its artistic and literary treasure and was virtually depopulated when it fell to the Ottoman Turks but recovered rapidly. It was embellished with many mosques, palaces, monuments, fountains, baths and other public buildings by the Ottoman sultans. 1
Figure 1. Area of Interest
THE BATTLES OF CONSTANTINOPLE
23. Series of Battle. The Fall of Constantinople occurred on 29 May 1453 after a siege which began on 6 April 1453. It was part of the battle between Byzantine and Ottoman Wars from 1265 to 1453. Before this, many battles happened during several era as follows:
Khalifah Uthmaniyyah Uthman I from 1280 to 1324M.
Urkhan I from 1281 to 1361M.
Murad I from 1326 to 1389M.
Bayezid I from 1360 to 1403M.
Muhammad I from 1382 to 1421M.
Mehmed II from 1404 to 1451M.
24. Ascending to the Ottoman throne in 1451, Sultan Muhammad II (Mehmed II) made preparations to capture Constantinople, which was badly eroded after it was captured in 1204 (during the Fourth Crusade), through the construction of one on the European shore known as Rumeli Hisari. 2 During the spring and summer of 1452, he also built a second fortress several miles north of Constantinople on the European side, directly across the strait from Anadolu Hisari. Then, he made an armistice agreement with other neighbouring countries and researched the plan of Constantinople every night for two years.
25. After learning that Mehmed II was preparing for an attack, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI, appealed to Western Europe for support with 7000 armed men in defending walled cities. Constantine also attempted to appease the Sultan with gifts which...
Bibliography: 1. http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/HundredYearsWar.
6. Felix Y. Siauw. MUHAMMAD AL-FATIH 1453. Jakarta Barat, 2nd Edition 2011.
7. Lt Kol Hj Mohd Anas bin Hasan.
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