The Middle Ages: The Crusades
The Crusades were a lengthy number of battles in the Middle Ages that shaped and drastically changed religion all across Western Europe forever. These wars were driven by an intense dedication to faith by the Muslims and Christians of the time. 1. Crusade can be defined as an action driven by what people believe to be a good and worthy cause (Philips). 2. Interpretations of works by Islamic and Christians place start of Crusades ahead of accepted beginning in 1095 when Pope Urban II sent Knights to Jerusalem, instead referring to the Norman Conquest of Islamic Sicily (Crawford). 3. Accepted beginning of Crusades states November 1095 when Pope Urban II called upon Knights to liberate Holy Land, the city of Jerusalem as well as Christians from east from Muslim power (Philips). 4. Crusaders were made up of military units of Roman Catholics from all over Western Europe; they had no unified leader (Daniels). 5. Crusaders gave rise to a number of Knightly Orders such as the Knights Templar, Hospitaller, and the Teutonic Knights (Daniels). 6. The goal of Christian Crusaders expanded later to seizing Spain from the Moors, and later Eastern Europe from the Slavs and Pagans (Philips). 7. Christian Crusaders were composed of all classes of Europe upper, middle, and lower were represented (Chevedden). 8. Over fifteen thousand children were sent to Jerusalem in 1212 being told that God would give them victory based on faith; however they disappeared into the slave trade shortly after arriving in Italy (Riley-Smith). 9. There were nine total Crusades during the Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Riley-Smith). 10. After all crusades there were many Crusader-led states that were far from Holy Land, the last of the states was Malta led by The Knights of St. John, Malta fell in 1798 (Philips).
Chevedden, Paul E. “The Islamic View and the Christian View of the Crusades: A New Synthesis” History; April 2008,...
Cited: Chevedden, Paul E. “The Islamic View and the Christian View of the Crusades: A New Synthesis” History; April 2008, Ebscohost. Web, 1 February 2013.
Crawford, Paul F. “Four Myths About the Crusades” Intercollegiate Review, 2011, Ebsohost. Web, 1 February 2013.
Johnson, Daniels. “How to Think About the Crusades” Commentary, 2005, Ebscohost. Web, 1 February 2013.
Philips, Johnathan. “The Call of the Crusades” History Today, 1994. Ebscohost. Web, 1 February 2013.
Riley-Smith, John Ed. “The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades” New York Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
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