UGC 112 Midterm Study Guide
1. Turks: founded the Ottoman Empire
2. TMBG: They Might be Giants is a band who covered the song “Istanbul (not Constantinople). 3. NFL: The person who cuts people from the team is called a “Turk”, wields a sword… significant of our violent perception of the Turks 4. Orientalists: Orientalism is to draw stereotypical conclusions about cultures you don’t understand. The Europeans did this towards the declining Ottoman empire, coming up with strange and mystical reasons for the empire’s decline. a. Thought of the foreign culture as “strange”
b. Many orientalist paintings that portrayed these views. Ex: “Carpet merchants in Cairo” and “The Harem on the Terrace” by Gerome. c. Gerome and Ingres were orientalists
d. Orientalism is not just a western disease, it’s a human problem when people from one culture look at another culture 5. Bursa: a city in northwestern Turkey. It was the capital of the Ottoman empire between 1326-1365. 6. Edirne: a city in northwestern Turkey. It was the capital of the Ottoman empire between 1365-1453, before Constantinople (Istanbul) became the new capital. 7. Constantinople: the capital of the Eastern Roman/Byzantine Empire, it was conquered by the Ottomans in the 15th century and renamed Istanbul. 8. Devsirme: a practice of recruiting young boys from Christian families (ages 6 – 16). These boys were brought to Istanbul, converted to Islam, and became palace slaves. They were trained to become future soldiers and administrators. 9. Janissaries: centrally paid infantry soldiers recruited from the devsirme; this was a standing army 10. Timar: The Ottoman empire was a feudal state, their estates were called Timars. Timars were granted to nobles for life, but they were not inherited. When the noble died, that timar was given to someone else. Timars had their own armies, which were called upon for specific threats (not a standing army) 11. Fiscal-military State: used in both Hapsburg and Ottoman empire. e. This pattern appeared due to the rise of firearms at the time f. Origins in the 16th-17th century (not very mature system at the time) g. With this system, soldiers are paid and trained… standing armies h. Under this system: land-grant system, money economy 12. Seljuks: the Turkish dynasty which conquered Anatolia from the Byzantines, but disintegrated by the 1300s. 13. Alp Arslan: the third sultan of the Seljuk empire, he conquered the Byzantine empire 14. The battle of Manzikert (1071): was fought between the Byzantine empire and the Seljuk Turks, led by Alp Arslan in Manzikert, Turkey. Byzantines were defeated. 15. Ghazis: Islamic holy warriors
16. Osman: (1299-1326) Ertogrul’s son, a Turkish warlord who declared himself an independent ruler (nominally subject to the Seljuks) and conquered Anatolian provinces from Byzantium with his clan and Turkish ghazis. Established the Ottoman Empire. 17. Osmanli: the Ottoman ruling class… comes from people’s respect for Osman 18. Ertogrul: Osman’s father, led the Turkic Kayi tribe into Anatolia from central Asia fleeing the Mongol onslaught. He pledged allegiance to the Seljuk sultanate of Rum, the sultan gave him permission to form and emirate and expand it at the expense of the neighboring Byzantine provinces. 19. Mehmet II: (r. 1451-1481) conquered the Byzantine capital of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453. He promised his new Christian subjects full protection. Ordered the construction of the Topkapi Palace (1459), and moved the capital from Edirne to Istanbul. 20. May 29, 1453: Mehmet II sieged and conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) 21. Bosphorus: also known as the Istanbul strait, is a strait that forms part of the boundary between Europe and Asia. It connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. 22. The Golden Horn: is an inlet of the Bosphorus dividing the city of Istanbul. The...
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